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Geoffrey de Montbray

Scanned Source: The Mowbray Journal Co-edited by: William Mowbray, and Stephen Goslin, London, vol.1 no.1 Apr 1976 to vol.4 no. 3 Dec 1979.

Other Links:
http://www.rotwang.freeserve.co.uk/Mowbray.html
http://www.mowfam.freeserve.co.uk/page34.htm
http://www.mowfam.freeserve.co.uk/
http://www.patpnyc.com/conq/mowbray.shtml

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THE LORDS MOWBRAY

There were two baronial families of Mowbray, and although some historians assert there was a relationship between them, no evidence bears this out.

The first family owned and came direct from the Normandy village of Montbray:

Geoffrey de Montbray was born about 1030, a son of Roger, Sire de Montbray. Before the Conquest he had been made Bishop of Coutances, and in that town he is remembered today for his munificence: there is the street called 'Rue Geoffroi de Montbray'. Churchmen were not expected to remain ascetics then, and Geoffrey proved the point by commanding a section of William the Conqueror's army at Hastings, where King Harold of England was apparently killed by an arrow in his eye. For his various services to William, Geoffrey was granted no less than 280 English manors, one manor being about the size of a single village.

Geoffrey's life in England passed without note until 1088, when he and his nephew Robert de Montbray sided with Robert, son of the Conqueror, against his brother William Rufus. From Geoffrey's castle at Bristol, he and his nephew marched on and burned Bath, then ravaged the county of Wiltshire, but finally being repulsed at Ilchester. Though this rising had collapsed, the bishop went unpunished, and lived a quieter life until his death in 1093.

Robert de Montbray, born about 1060, was the nephew and heir of bishop Geoffrey. He was made Earl of Northumberland in 1080, but gained a reputation for governing his large territory with cruelty. He defended his Earldom against the Scots under King Malcolm in 1091, driving them back from Chester-le-Street, and when they invaded two years later, Robert defeated Malcolm at Alnwick, where the Scottish king and his eldest son were killed.

In 1095, Robert rebelled against King William Rufus, in support of a conspiracy to place a foreign count on the throne of England. In fact, Robert seems to have started the insurrection by seizing four Norwegian vessels in a Northumbrian haven, and by refusing to answer for his behavior at the king's court. Rufus then took a force of mercenaries and militia into the North, captured the Earl's fortress at Newcastle and his castle at Tynemouth, and then besieged Bamborough castle, where Robert had 'holed up'. Bamborough being virtually impregnable, Rufus built and garrisoned a tower nearby, which he called Malveisin, or 'The Evil Neighbour', and went off the Welsh war. Not long after his departure, the Royal garrison at Newcastle drew Robert de Montbray into an ambush, and took him prisoner, but he escaped to his monastery at Tynemouth, and there withstood a siege of six days, until he was wounded in the leg and dragged from the church in which he had taken refuge. Then, he was taken to Bamborough and paraded before the walls under the sight of his wife, who was still defending the castle. His captors threatened to sear his eyes out in front of her, unless she immediately surrendered the fortress. Without hesitation she did so.

Robert was deprived of his earldom and all his possessions, and taken South to be imprisoned at Windsor, where he languished thirty years until his death. A contemporary graphic portrait says of him: "Powerful, rich, bold, fierce in war, haughty, he despised his equals, and, swollen with vanity, disdained to obey his superiors. He was of great stature, strong, swarthy and hairy. Daring and crafty, stern and grim, he was more given to meditation than speech, and in conversation scarce ever smiled." 

The second House of Mowbray was founded by Roger, son of Nigel D'Ambigny (sometimes spelt d'Albini), whose family came from the Norman village of Saint Martin d'Aubigny, near to both Montbray and Coutances. Nigel's first marriage was to Matilda, divorced wife of Robert de Montbray, Earl of Northumberland. But this union was annulled on grounds of consanguity, it being assumed by modern historians that the D'Aubigny and de Montbray families were closely related. For his faithful service to King Henry, Nigel was rewarded with the forfeited lands of the Montbrays, and the name of his eldest son Roger was changed by royal command from L'Aubigny to Montbray. Roger was born about 1120, and although the clerks wrote his name 'Molbray' and sometimes 'Montbray', this account will from now on refer to all the family as 'Mowbray', as that was the version in use from about 1250.

Roger de Mowbray acquired from his father a vast area of land, not only the Montbray estates in Normandy, but others lying in the midlands and in Yorkshire. In the centre was Axholme, Lincolnshire, which ultimately became the base of Mowbray power. But Roger's own life was on his Yorkshire lands, and it was from those that he was taken to the Battle of the Standard in 1138 (a battle with the Scots), although shielded from the action, being little more than a boy. In his childhood he lived at Thirsk with his mother, Gundreda, under whose guidance he became a generous benefactor to the church. In 1138 they sheltered the monks of Calder, fleeing from the Scots raiders. Roger gave them a tenth of the victuals of Thirsk castle, and in 1143, bestowed on them his villa of Byland. In the course of his long life, he frequently made additional gifts to Byland Abbey, but did not confine himself with generosity to a single cause, and in 1145 he founded the great abbey at Newburgh, fairly close to Byland. Other gifts of land were made to the Yorkshire abbeys of Fountains, Bridlington and Rievaulx, and he doubled his father's endowment to the priory of Hurst in Axholme. In Normandy he gave all his lands in Granville to the Abbaya des Dames at Caen when his daughter became a nun there.

Roger was naturally drawn into the Crusades. In 1146, while defending his title to the castle of Bayeux, Normandy, he was induced to accompany King Louis VII of France to the Holy Land. The Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem regarded Roger's services to the crusading movement so highly, that in 1335, they proclaimed that the Mowbrays should be treated 'beyond the seas' as those to whom they were most obliged, discounting the king himself.

In 1174 Roger appears in the new character of a rebel. Immediately after Easter he and his two sons Nigel and Robert joined the formidable coalition against the king, which had taken up arms in the previous summer. He hastily fortified his castle of Kinnardferry in Axholme, and strongly garrisoned his two Yorkshire strongholds of Thirsk and Kirkby Malzeard. His defection was one of the most dangerous elements of the situation, for his three fortresses linked the rebel earls in the midlands with the King of Scots, who was destroying the English border castles in Northumberland and Cumberland. Thirsk and Kirkby Malzeard blocked the way through Yorkshire to any royal army sent against the Scots. The king's warlike son, Geoffrey, bishop of Lincoln, gathered a force in Lincolnshire, and laid siege to Kinnardferry. This 'castle of the island', surrounded by waters of a fen, was almost impregnable; but lack of water within compelled the defenders to surrender in a few days. After demolishing the castle, Bishop Geoffrey advanced into Yorkshire and besieged the castle of Kirkby Malzeard, which also gave him little trouble. Thirsk was now attacked, but Roger had escaped to the King of Scots, whom he found besieging Prudhoe-on-Tyne, and secured a promise of help on condition that he assisted the Scots in their invasion of Yorkshire. But, on hearing that Yorkshire was rallying round its sheriff, Roger and the king re-crossed the Tyne and retreated northwards. They were overtaken and captured at Alnwick, but Roger escaped into Scotland, where he stayed for three weeks until hearing of the rebellion's failure. he then came back into England, and surrendered to King Henry at Northampton, where, surprisingly, he was taken back into grace and favour. However, Henry was careful, and in 1176 ordered the total demolition of Roger's Yorkshire castles: so we can date this royal weakening of Mowbray power in Yorkshire as the time the family went to reside at Axholme, in north-west Lincolnshire.

In 1186 Roger crusaded for the third and final time, and journeyed to the Holy Land. When the extension of the truce between Saladin and Guy de Lusignan allowed the crusaders to return home, Roger and Hugh de Beauchamp chose to remain at Jerusalem 'in the service of God'. In Saladin's great victory on 6th July 1187 he was taken prisoner with King Guy, was redeemed in the following year by the knights templar, but did not long survive his liberation. Tradition adds that he was buried at Tyre, an old warrior of nearly seventy years, but very typical of many of his lordly descendants.

Roger de Mowbray had married Alice de Gant, a relative of the powerful Gilbert de Gant of Folkingham, and had by her at least two sons, Nigel and Robert.

Nigel de Mowbray was born circa 1150. There is not much known of his life, as he lived the greater portion of it in his father's shadow, taking over the administrative duties of the huge Mowbray estates in England and Normandy. Nigel was amongst the Barons who attended King Richard the Lionheart's coronation, and later, showing the same enthusiasm for the Crusades as his father, he died on the journey to Palestine, and was buried at sea in 1191. His marriage to Mabel de Clare took place about 1170, and four sons are known from this union; William, Philip (ancestor of the Scottish Mowbrays), Robert, and Roger.

William de Mowbray one of the executors of Magna Carta, had livery of his lands upon his coming of age in 1194, on payment of the usual sum of one hundred pounds 'relief', but was immediately called on to pay a similar sum as his share of the tax levied towards King Richard's ransom, for the payment of which he was one of the pledges. He was a witness to the English treaty with Flanders in 1197. When Richard I died, and John delayed to claim the throne, William was one of the powerful group of barons who seized the opportunity to fortify their castles; but, like the rest, was induced to swear fealty to John by the promises which Archbishop Hubert Walter, the justiciar Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, and William Marshall made in his name. Apparently it was thought prudent by the king to exempt him from the tax raised early in 1200. 

When William de Stuteville renewed the old claim of his family to certain lands which had come to the Mowbrays from the Frontebouefs, thus ignoring the compromise made by his father with Roger de Mowbray, and William (de Mowbray) supported his suit by a present of three thousand marks to the king, John and his great council dictated a new compromise. Stuteville had to accept nine knights' fees and the sum of 12.00 in full satisfaction of his claims, and the adversaries were reconciled at a country house of the Bishop of Lincoln at Louth on 21st January 1201. 

William continued though, to be active against King John, and in 1215 became prominent among his opponents: it is from about this date that a physical description of him by a contemporary survives - brief, but the only surviving picture of any of John's adversaries. Baron William de Mowbray was, we learn, "as short as a dwarf", and must have had considerable difficulty getting onto his horse fully armoured. Any other trouble he might have had from the disability was clearly pushed aside, as William's own efforts had made him a man to be reckoned with. He was responsible in large measure for the creation of 'Magna Carta' and with its endorsement by King John, who signed reluctantly. William was then appointed one of the charter's executors, and as such was specially named among those excommunicated by the Pope.

Once again, he took up arms against King John, but was taken prisoner in the battle of Lincoln in 1217, and his lands bestowed upon William Marshall, but he redeemed them by the surrender of his lordship of Bensted in Surrey to Hubert de Burgh. Three years later, in January 1221, William assisted Hubert in driving his former Magna Carta colleague, William of Aumale, from his last stronghold at Bytham, Lincolnshire. Mowbray died at Axholme, Lines., in the following year.

William de Mowbray died in 1222, leaving two sons and heirs:

NIGEL de MOWBRAY, born about the year 1200, and who paid the (then) princely sum of 500 relief on succeeding to his father's lands. In the spring of 1230 he sailed with the kings expedition for the invasion of France, but died prematurely in that year, and was buried at Nantes: there were no children by his marriage, and he was succeeded by his brother.

ROGER de MOWBRAY, who was a minor at his brother's death, born within a few years of his father's departure. Roger made his homage to the King, and took livery of his heritage in 1241. Until 1257, he seems to have led a fairly domestic life - by the standards of that period - applying for, and being granted a license to have a fair and market at Hovingham, Yorkshire, and slipping round the land-hungry monasteries confirming many charters of land ( mostly concerning Yorkshire ) made to the monks by his great-grandfather, Roger de Mowbray. In 1258 he was summonsed for military service against the Scots (among whose ranks was his cousin Roger, son of Philip de Mowbray), and two years later was ordered to be at Chester to serve against the 'Welsh, being appointed by the king to dictate the English terms of the truce with Llewelyn. For his services to the King, Roger was given a robe for Christmas. He sided with the crown in its ensuing struggle for power with disaffected barons, but all this took a heavy toll of his physical resources, and he died in 1266, being buried in the church of the Friard Preachers at Pontefract, Yorkshire. by his wife Matilda de Beauchamp, daughter of the baron of Bedford, Roger had a son

ROGER, 1st LORD MOWBRAY, born about 1257, was summoned for military service against the Welsh in 1282 and 1283, and in June of the latter year to the Parliament at Shrewsbury. In 1287 the King required his presence at a military council at Gloucester, and in 1291 for service against the Scots, a particular request - or order - that was repeated in 1296. In September 1294 he was going on the King's service to Gascony, and in the following year received the title of (1st) LORD MOWBRAY and thus, as no previous baron had been created by writ from the King, he became premier baron of England. A distinction needs to be made here - we have used the title 'lord' quite freely, but when it has been thus, in small case, it only implies overlordship of an estate, and no an official title. A man would say that he held his few acres from 'Lord Smith', but Lord Smith might be a person of no great importance. 

In 1297, Roger again attended Parliament at Salisbury. His marriage in 1270 to Rose de Clare, daughter of the Earl Gloucester, had been arranged as early as her 13th birthday by his own and Rose's mothers. He died at Ghent in 1297, and his body was brought over to be reinterred at Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, where his effigy in stone is. One American book has kept going the myth that he had a son named Alexander, who supposedly went to Scotland: Alexander de Mowbray in fact was one of the seven sons of Geoffrey of Scot and, whose story we will come around to.

It should be of interest know where Roger's property lay. There exists a copy of his 'Inquisition Post Mortem' Latin for after death - listing land in the following counties: 
- Essex; at Doddinghurst and Easthorpe. 
- Leicestershires at Melton Mowbray, Kirby on the Wreak, Frithby, Welby, Kettleby, Stathern, Eastwell, Goadby, Burton Lazars, Wyfordby, Little Dalby, Sysonby, Queeniborough, Cold Newton, Hoby, Pickwell, Leesthorpe, Bitmeswell, Ullesthorpe, Aston Flamville, Thrussington, Radcliffe.
- Lincolnshire: at Gainsborough, Scawby, Garthorpe, Blyborough, Burton by Lincoln, and the whole Isle of Axholme (incl. Haxey, Butterwick, Ouston, Beltft, and Belton). 
- Northamptonshires at Crich and'Welford.
- Nottinghamshire: at Egmanton, Averham, Serlby in Harworth, Auckley (partially in Yorkshire), and Finningley. 
- Rutland: at Empingham. 
- Warwickshire: at Monks Kirkby, Lt.Harborough, Wappenbury, Brinklow, Hampton in Arden, .Nuthurst, Over, Chadwick, Newham, Baddesley Clinton, Shustoke, Bentley, Hesilholt and Smyte. 
- Yorkshire; the property in this county was situated in so many places that it would take up half this page to list them. 

Roger had a son, JOHN, (2nd) LORD MOWBRAY, born in September 1286, was called upon to perform the duties of a northern baron in the Scottish wars in his fourteenth year. It seems though, that on this particular expedtion his duty was to attend the King only as far north as Carlisle. Five years later though, John served throughout the last Scottish campaigns of Edward 1, who before starting gave him livery of his lands (unusual, because John was not of age, and presumably in this instance because of his loyal service to Edward) and knighted him, together with the Prince of Wales and three hundred other young noblemen on 22nd May 1306. He attended the coronation of King Edward II in 1308, and for several years proved faithful to this oft-despised monarch, being every summer up to 1319 occupied on his behalf against the Scots. In 1312, John was appointed keeper of the city and county of York, and the following year he was made Warden of the Marches (these being the 'middle ground' of the Scottish/English border). In 1315 he was appointed captain and keeper of Newcastle-on-Tyne and Northumberland. 

ln 1320, the fated heritage of his wife involved him in a dispute with the Kings powerrful favourites, the Despencers, which proved fatal to him and to many active sympathizers of greater political prominence. It appears that John's father-in-law, the Lord Brewes, had made a special grant of his lordship of Gower in the marches of Wales to John and his wife, who was Brewes' only child.  But the King's greedy favorite, Hugh le Despencer wanted to add Gower to his neighbouring lordship of Glamorgan, and when John entered into possession without the formality of a royal license, he insisted that the property was thereby forfeited to the crown, and induced the King to order legal proceedings against John. This proceeding led to a confederation of the lords of the Welsh marches (whose landed interests were thereby threatened by Despencer), headed by the Earl of Hereford, the Mortimers, and John de Mowbray, against the Despencers, upholding John's contention that the King's license had never been necessary in the marches. Hugh le Despencer ' scoffed at the law and custom of the marches, and hinted that those who appealed to them were guilty of treason. The situation, which was strained in the October Parliament of 1320, became acutely critical in the early months of 1321. The discontented barons withdrew to the marches, the king then issuing writs to twenty-nine lords, including John, forbidding them to assemble together for political purposes. But before a final breach, the Earl of Hereford persuaded the King to contract with Lord Brewes to possess the land in dispute, for the benefit, as he said, of the Prince of Wales. Although the Despencers were subsequently banished, and John received a formal pardon from Edward II, he threw in his lot within six months with the Earl of Lancaster, who was busy firing, looting and besieging the King's lands around Doncaster and Tickhill in Yorkshire. John retreated before Edward's forces, and made a final stand at Boroughbridge, where he and other prominent lords were captured. On 23rd March 1322, the day after Lancaster's trial and beheading at Pontefract, John and the Lord Clifford were condemned to be drawn by horses, and hung at York. his body was left hanging in iron chains on the gallows for three years, after which the king allowed it to be taken down and buried in the church of the Friars Preachers at York. Edward took all John's lands into his own hands, his widow Alina and his son John were imprisoned in the Tower of London, and under pressure she disclaimed her right to her inheritance in Sussex, which was regranted to the Despencers, who had returned to favour. It might be considered partisan to note that not too soon after, King Edward met with a particularly nasty end.

JOHN, 3rd LORD MOWBRAY, who was a minor at his father's death in 1322, was released from the Tower of London, where he and his mother had been kept prisoner for five years, on the deposition of Edward II in January 1327. Though still under age, he was allowed livery of his father's lands, but his marriage was granted, for services to Queen Isabella, to the Earl of Lancaster, who married John to his fifth daughter, Joan. The great estates in Wales and Sussex which came to John through his mother involved him in a protracted litigation with his cousin, Thomas de Brewes, which had begun in 1338, and was still proceeding in 1347. John also had a dispute before his mother's death in 1332 with her second husband, Sir Richard Peahall, touching certain manors in Bedfordshire which he and his mother had granted Peshall for life, and in 1329 forcibly entered them.

John was regularly summoned to the parliaments from 1328 to 1361, and was a member of the king's council from the former year. in 1327, 1333, 1335, and again in 1337, he served in the north against the Scots. In 1337, when war with France was impending, he was ordered as lord of Gower to arm his tenants; next year he had to provide ships for the king's passage to the continent, and was sent down to his Sussex estates in the prospect of a French landing. In connection with the continuing Scottish troubles he was appointed justiciar of Lothian and governor of Berwick-on-Tweed in 1340, and in September of the following year he was commanded to furnish Balliol with men from his Yorkshire estates. 

At the clash with the Scots at Neville's Cross, Durham, in 1346 (where, incidentally, John's cousin William de Moubray of the Scots army was captured) he fought in the third line, and one of the chroniclers of the times - Lanercost - loudly sang his praises "He was full of grace and kindness - the conduct both of himself and his men was such as to resound to their perpetual honour." On the expiration, in 1352, of one of the short truces which began in 1347, he was appointed chief of the commissioners charged with defense of the Yorkshire coast against the French, and required to furnish thirty men from Wales. The king sent him once more to the Scottish border in 1355. In December 1359 he was made a justice of the peace in the district of Rolland, Lincolnshire, and in the following February a commissioner of array at Leicester for the counties of Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire and Rutland. his last recorded duty as the king's servant was when he was summoned for parliament in May 1360. John died at York of the plague on 4th October 1361, and was buried in the Franciscan church at Bedford. The favorable testimony which the Lanercost chronicler bore to John's character is borne out by a piece of confirmatory evidence. In order to put to an end disputes between his steward and tenants in Axholme, Lincs. he made a deed in 1359 reserving a small part of the extensive waste land in the island to himself, and granting the remainder of his tenants 'in perpetuum'. This deed was jealously preserved in Haxey church, Axholme, "in a chest bound with iron, whose key was kept by some of the chiefest freeholders, under a window wherein was a portraiture of Mowbray, set in ancient stained glass, holding in his hand a writing, commonly reported to be an emblem of the deed." This window was broken down in the "rebellious times", when the rights of the commoners under the deed were in large measure overridden, in spite of their protests, by the drainage scheme which was begun by Cornelius Vermuyden in 1626.

JOHN, 4th LORD MOWBRAY, who was probably born in 1328. Before 1353 he had married Elizabeth, the only child and heiress of the sixth Lord Segrave, on whose death in that year he entered into possession of her lands, lying chiefly in Leicestershire, where the manors of Segrave, Sileby and Mountsorrell rounded off the Mowbray estates about Melton Mowbray, and in Warwickshire, where the castle and manor of Caludon and other lordships increased the Mowbray holding in that county. John met an untimely death at the hands of the Turks near Constantinople, on his way to the Holy Land in 1368.  His elder son was -  

JOHN, 5th LORD MOWBRAY, born ca 1363, was created Earl of Nottingham on the day of Richard II's coronation, but died on 10th February 1383 at an early age, and without issue: his younger brother was -

THOMAS, 6th LORD MOWBRAY, and first Duke of Norfolk; born ca 1366. He was of the blood royal through his mother, herself descended from Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk (a son of Edward I), and this factor was to play a large part in his fate. Thomas' mother is said to have had him baptized with that name - one not previously affected by the family - to mark her special reverence for St. Thomas of Canterbury (the same Thomas A'Becket murdered in Canterbury Cathedral). On the death of his brother, Thomas inherited, in addition to the great Mowbray barony, in which were merged those of de Brewes and Segrave, the expectation of the still more splendid heritage of the Bigod family, previous Earls of Norfolk. King Richard in February 1363 revived, in favour of his young cousin Thomas, the title of Earl of Nottingham, which his brother had borne. Before October of that year he was given the garter vacant by the death of old Sir John Burley. In the summer of 1385, Thomas was present in the expedition which the king in person conducted against the Scots, and on the eve of their departure, Richard presented Mowbray for life with the office of Earl Marshal of England. On the march northwards through Yorkshire, Thomas confirmed, with many of the knights of the English army as witnesses, his ancestor Roger de Mowbray's charter of land to Byland Abbey.

He was barely twenty years of age when the nobles rebelled at court against the king in October 1386, but his name does not appear among theirs. Of nearly the same age as King Richard, Thomas had been much in his company in that year. But he had married in 1385 a sister of Arundel, who was a chief author of the revolution, and shared with his brother-in-law the glory of his naval victory in March 1387 over the French, Flemings and Spaniards. He did not however, accompany Arundel in the further expedition which he undertook for the relief of Brest. The king received Thomas very coldly when he presented himself to report his success, and practically refused to speak to him. Arundel and Thomas therefore retired to their estates to get out of harm's way. Relations were obviously very strained between the cousins at the time, because Thomas was one of those whose destruction the king and his favorite, the Duke of Ireland, plotted after Easter. Yet he does not seem to have taken any open part in the armed demonstration in November by which Gloucester, Arundel and Warwick extorted from Richard a promise that his advisers should be brought to account before parliament. It was not until after the lords in revolt had fled from the court, and the Duke of Ireland was approaching with an army to relieve the king from the constraint in which he was held, that Thomas followed Derby's example, and appeared in arms with Derby and the other three lords at Huntingdon on December 12th. Even now, if we can trust the story which Thomas and Derby told ten years after, when they were assisting Richard in bringing their old associates to account for these proceedings, they showed themselves more moderate than their elders. They claimed to have secured the rejection of Arundel's plan to capture and depose the king. The five confederates marched instead into Oxfordshire, to intercept the Duke of Ireland before he could pass the river Thames. They divided their forces for the purpose on 20th December, and Thomas, like some of the others, seemingly did not come up in time to take part with Derby and Gloucester in the actual fighting at Radcot Bridge, from which the Duke of Ireland only escaped by swimming. The victors returned through Oxford, with Arundel and Thomas bringing up the rear; after spending Christmas Day at St. Albans, they reached London on 26th December, and encamped in the fields at Clerkenwell. The London populace siding with the formidable host outside the city walls, the mayor opened the gates to the lords. They insisted on an interview with Richard in the Tower of London, and entered his presence with linked arms. The helpless young king consented to meet them next day at Westminster, and asked them to sup and stay the night with him, in token of goodwill. Gloucester refused, but Richard succeeded in keeping Derby and Thomas to supper. Next day they formally appealed the king's favorites of treason at Westminster, and Richard was forced to order their arrest. 

As one of the five appellants, Thomas joined in the subsequent proscription of the king's friends in the so-called Merciless Parliament which met on 3rd February 1388. On 10th March he was joined as marshal with Gloucester, the constable to hear a suit between Matthew Gournay and Louis de Sancerre Constable of France. In the early months of 1389 he is said to have been sent against the Scots, who were ravaging Northumberland; but, being entrusted with only 500 lances, did not venture an encounter with the Scots who numbered 30,000.

When King Richard shook off the tutelage of the appellants on 3rd May, Thomas was removed with the others from the privy council. But once his own master Richard showed particular anxiety to conciliate the earl-marshal. He gave his the overdue livery of his lands, and a week after his emancipation placed him on the commission appointed to negotiate a truce with Scotland. Thomas' great possessions in the north naturally suggested his employment in the defense of the Scottish border, as his grandfather had been employed before him. On let June, therefore, he was constituted warden of the East Marches (the eastern area on the English side of the Border), captain of Berwick-on-Tweed, and constable of Roxburgh Castle for a term of two years. by the middle of September both he and Derby had been restored to their places at the council board, which a month later was the scene of a hot dispute between the king and his new chancellor William of Wykeham, who resisted Richard's proposal to grant a large pension to Thomas. Whatever may have been the king's real feelings towards Gloucester and Arundel at this time, it was obviously to his interest to attach the younger and less prominent appellants to himself. Thomas alone was continuously employed in the service of the state, and entrusted with the most responsible commands. On 28th June,1390, he was associated with the treasurer, John Gilbert, Bishop of St. Davids, and others to obtain redress from the Scots for recent infractions of the truce. In 1391 an exchange of posts was effected between Thomas and the Earl of Northumberland, who returned to his old office of warden of the marches, while Thomas Mowbray took the captaincy of Calais. In November of the next year, this office was renewed to him for six years, in conjunction with that of lieutenant of the king in Calais, Picardy, Flanders and Artois for the same term. On 12th January 1394, Richard recognized Thomas' just and hereditary right to bear for his crest a golden leopard with a crown (in addition to the Mowbray coat of arms). In March of the same year Thomas was appointed chief justice of North Wales, and two months later justice of Cheater and Flint.

Thomas accompanied Richard to Ireland in September 1394, and on his return was commissioned with others to negotiate a long truce with France and a marriage for the king with Isabella, daughter of Charles VI of France. He was present at the costly wedding festivities at Calais in October 1396. Thomas thus closely identified himself with the French connection, which by its baneful influence on Richard's character and policy, and its unpopularity in the country contributed more than anything else to hastening his misfortunes. In the parliament of January 1397, Richard gave Thomas another signal proof of his favor by an express recognition of the earl-marshalship of England as hereditary in the Mowbray family and permission to bear a golden truncheon on his arms, bearing the royal arms on the upper side, and his won on the lower. At the same time Thomas secured a victory in a personal quarrel with the Earl of Warwick, whose father had, in 1352 obtained legal recognition of his claim to the lordship of Gower, a part of the Mowbray inheritance. This judgment was now reversed in Thomas' favour.

Thomas was out of England from the end of February until the latter part of June on a foreign mission, but returned to serve as one of the instruments of Richard's revenge on Gloucester, Arundel and Warwick, his fellow-appellants of 1388. How far Thomas' conduct was justifiable is a matter of opinion, but it was not unnatural. He was the last to join the appellants and probably the first to be reconciled to the king, and now for eight years he had been loaded by Richard with exceptional favors. He had long drifted apart from his old associates, and with one of them he was at open enmity. It must be confessed too that he was a considerable gainer by the destruction of as old friends. According to the king's story, Thomas and seven other young courtiers, of whom all but one were related to the royal family advised Richard to arrest Gloucester, Arundel and Warwick on 8th and 9th July. At Nottingham on 5th August, they agreed to appeal them of treason in the parliament which had been summoned to meet at Westminster on 21st September. Thomas was present when Richard in person arrested Glouceter at his castle of Pleshy in Sesex, and it was to his care as captain of Calais the duke was consigned. He may have himself conducted his prisoner to Calais, but his presence at Nottingham on 5th August proves that he did not mount guard personally over him throughout his imprisonment. He had for some time in fact been performing his duties at Calais by deputy.

On Friday, 21st September, Thomas and his fellow-appellants, "in red silk robes, banded with white silk, and powdered with letters of gold", renewed in parliament the appeal they had made at Nottingham. Arundel was forthwith tried, condemned and beheaded on Tower Hill. One historian asserts that Thomas led Arundel (his brother-in-law) to execution, bandaged his eyes and performed the execution himself. This seems to have been the popular belief as early as 1399; but the official record states that the dispatching was carried out by Thomas' lieutenant. On the day of Arundel's death the king issued a writ, addressed to Thomas a captain of Calais, or his deputy, to bring up the Duke of Gloucester before parliament to answer the charges of the appellants. Parliament seems to have adjourned to Monday the 24th, when Thomas' answer was read, curtly intimating that he could not produce the duke, as he had died in his custody at Calais. Next day a confession, purporting to have been made by Gloucester was read in parliament, and the dead man was found guilty of treason, The whole affair is shrouded in mystery, and there is a strong suspicion that Richard and Thomas were responsible for Gloucester's death, as shortly after the accession of Henry IV, a certain John Hall, servant to Thomas (who was by that time dead), being arrested as an accomplice in the murder of Gloucester, deposed in writing to parliament that he had been called from his bed by Thomas one night in September 1397, had been informed that that the king had ordered Gloucester to be murdered, and had been enjoined to be present with other esquires and servants of Thomas and of the Earl of Rutland. Hall had at first refused, but Thomas struck him on the head, and said that he should obey or die. He then took an oath of secrecy with eight other squires and yeomen whose names he gave, in the church of Notre-Dame in the presence of his master. Thomas then took them to a hostelry called Prince's Inn, and there left them. Gloucester was handed over to them by John Lovetot and was suffocated under a feather bed. Hall was at once condemned, without being produced, and executed. However, Thomas' guilt is not proved, though the balance of evidence is against him.

His services, whatever their extent, were rewarded on 28th September by a grant of the greater part of the Arundel estates in Sussex and Surrey and of seventeen of the Earl of Warwick's manors in the midlands. The commons representing to the king that Derby and Thomas had been "innocent of malice" in their appeal of 1388, Richard vouched for their loyalty. On 29th September, Thomas was created Duke of Norfolk, and his grandmother Margaret, countess of Norfolk, was at the same time created Duchess of Norfolk for her life.

But the wealth and honors did not render Norfolk's position inviolable. The king was vindictive by nature and had not forgotten that Norfolk was once his enemy; he afterwards declared that Thomas had not pursued the appeal of his old friends with such zeal as those who had never turned their coats. At the same time the inner circle of the king's confidants - the Earl of Kent (now Duke of Surrey), Sir William le Scrope (now Earl of Wiltshire), and the Earl of Salisbury were urging the king to rid himself of all who had ever been his enemies.

Thomas is said to have confided his fears to Hereford as they rode from Brentford to London in December 1397. Richard was informed of Norfolk's language; obtained from Hereford, who probably was jealous of Thomas' power, a written account of the interview with Norfolk, and summoned both parties to appear before the adjourned parliament, which was to meet at Shrewsbury on 30th January 1398.

Hereford seems to have accompanied the King on his way to Shrewsbury, for on 25th January, Richard gave him a full pardon for all treasons and any other offences of which he may have been guilty in the past. Thomas did not appear to answer the charges which Hereford then presented against him, and on 4th February, the king ordered his sheriffs to proclaim that he must appear within fifteen days.

At Oswestry on 23rd February, Norfolk was present and gave a full denial to the charges, and it was settled by the king and council at Bristol that unless sufficient proofs of his guilt were forthcoming in the meantime, the matter should be referred to a court of chivalry at Windsor. The court met on the day appointed, and decided that the matter should be settled by trial of battle at Coventry on 16th September. The lists were prepared in a place surrounded by a ditch outside the city, and on the day the combatants duly appeared. They were both magnificently arrayed, Thomas, we are told, having secured his armour from Germany, and Hereford's being a present from Gian Galeaxzo of Milan. Before they had joined issue, however, the king took the battle into his own hands, on the ground that treason was in question, and that it was undesirable the royal blood should be dishonoured by the defeat of either. Richard then decided that in as much as Thomas had confessed at Windsor to some of the charges which he had repelled at Oswestry, and was thus self convicted of conduct which was likely to have roused great trouble in the kingdom, he should quit the realm before the octaves of St. Edward, to take up his residence in Germany, Bohemia and Hungary, and "pass the great sea in pilgrimage". lie was to go nowhere else in Christendom on pain of incurring the penalties of treason. Hereford was banished to France, and communication between them was expressly forbidden. The same veto was laid upon all intercourse with Archbishop Arundel. Thomas' share of the lands of Arundel and Warwick, and all his offices were declared forfeited, because he had resisted the abrogation of the acts of the 'Merciless Parliament; and failed in his duty as an appellant. The rest of his estates were to be taken into the kings hands, and the revenues, after paying him 1000 l. a year, were devoted to covering the heavy losses in which it was alleged his mal-administration of his governorship of Calais had involved the king. Next day his office of Marshal of England was granted to the king's nephew, Thomas Holland, duke of Surrey.

On 3rd October the king ordered his admirals to allow free passage to Norfolk from any port between Scarborough and Orwell; licensed the duke to take with him a suite of 40 persons, 1,000 l. in money, with jewels, plate and harness, and issued a general request to all princes and nations to allow him safe-conduct. A few days later, Thomas took ship near Lowestoft, for Dordrecht, in the presence of several county gentry, who testified to the fact, and added that by sunset he was six leagues and more from that port, and was favoured with "bon vent et swef".

Of the subsequent wanderings of the banished Thomas Mowbray, we know no more than that he reached Venice, where on 18th February 1399 the senate, at the request of King Richard, granted him (disguised in their notes as duke of 'Gilforth') the loan of a galley for his intended visit to the Holy Sepulcher. He induced some private Venetians to advance him money for the expenses of his journey, on the express undertaking, inserted in his will, that their claims should rank above all others. On the death of Thomas' grandmother, Richard revoked the law by which Thomas had been able to receive inheritances by attorney, and thus prevented him from enjoying - even in exile - the revenues of the old Bigod estates.

It cannot be regarded as certain that he ever made his Journey to Palestine, for he died at Venice on 22nd September of the same year (1399). The register of Newburgh Priory says, however, that it was after his return from the Holy Land, and that he died of the plague.  He was buried in Venice and that he died of the plague. He was buried in Venice, and though his son John left instructions in his will that his father's ashes should be brought to England, nothing seems  to have been done until his descendant, Thomas Howard, third duke of Norfolk, preferred a request for them to the Venetian authorities in December 1532 through the Venetian ambassador in London.

Thomas left lands in most counties in England and Wales, whose mere enumeration fills eleven closely printed folio pages in the 'Inquisitiones Post Vortem'. He was twice-married. His first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Roger le Strange of Blackmere, died almost immediately, and in 1585 he took for his second wife Elizabeth Fitsalan, daughter of Richard, Earl of Arundel, who bore him two sons, Thomas and John; and two daughters, Isabel (who married Sir James Berkley) and Margaret, who became wife of Sir Robert Howard, created duke of Norfolk after the extinction of the Mobray male line in the 15th century.

THOMAS MOWBRAY, Earl Marshal and third earl of Nottingham was the elder son of the above Thomas Mowbray. At the time of his father's death at Venice, he was page of Richard II's child-queen, Isabella. The young Thomas was not allowed to assume the title of Duke of Norfolk, though it was not expressly revoked, and that of earl marshal, which he was allowed to retain, was dissociated from the Office of marshal of England, which was granted for life to the Earl of Westmoreland. A small income was set aside from the revenue of his Gower estates for the support of Thomas and his younger brother John, and he was married towards the close of 1400 (aged 14) to the king's niece, Constance Holland, whose father, the duke of Exeter was beheaded in the preceding January.

Smarting under his exclusion from his father's honours, and perhaps urged on by his discontented Yorkshire neighbours, the Percies and Scropes, Thomas joined in the treasonable movements of 1405. On his own confession he was privy to the Duke of York's plot for carrying off the young Mortimers from Windsor in February of that year. But the king accepted his assurances that he had taken no active part in the conspiracy. Immediately afterwards he quarreled with Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick. The latter claimed, in a council on 1st March, precedence of Thomas as the holder of an earldom of elder creation. The king decided in Warwick's favour, and Thomas retreated in dudgeon to the north, where the Earl of Northumberland was already preparing for revolt.

Thomas joined Archbishop Scrope of York in formulating and placarding over that city a list of grievances in English, in one form of which the king was denounced as a usurper. These articles hit most of the blots on Henry's administration, and some eight or none thousand Yorkshiremen gathered round the two as they marched northwards from York to Thomas country around Thirsk, where Sir John Fauconberg and other local knights were in arms. They were probably aiming at a junction with Northumberland and Lord Bardolf. But the king's second son, John, afterwards Duke of Bedford, and Ralph Kevill, earl of Westmoreland, dispersed Fauconberg's forces at Topcliffe, a Percy lordship close to Thirsk, and on 29th May intercepted the earl-marshal and Scrope at Shipton Moor, five and a half miles north of York. It was against Thomas' judgment that Scrope consented to the fatal interview with Nevill, when the latter, assuming a spirit of friendly concession, induced the archbishop to dismiss his followers. The leaders were then seized and hurried off to Pontefract, where the king arrived from Wales by 3rd June. They were afterwards brought to the Archbishop's house at Bishopthorpe, some two miles south of York. The king's wrath was fanned by his half-brother, Thomas Beaufort, and by the young Earl of Arundel (Thomas' uncle) and he resolved that the prisoners should die where they had raised the standard of revolt. On the morning of Monday, 8th June, the king called upon Chief-justice Gascoigne (whose mother was a Mowbray of Easby) to pass sentence on the archbishop and his fellow-traitors. Gascoigne refused to sit in judgment on a prelate, and sentence of death was delivered in the name of the commissioners without form of trial by another judge, Sir William Fulthorpe. The same day, the feast of St. William of York, and a holiday in the city, the condemned men were led out to execution before a great concourse of citizens in a cornfield under the walls of the city. Thomas showed some natural fear of death, but was encouraged by his companion to keep a stout heart. He was beheaded before the archbishop, and his body buried in the Grey Friars Church, but his head was fixed on a stake on Bootham Bar.

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woodbullet.gif (174 bytes)IRELAND MOWBRYS/MULBERRYS

Maps of the 14th and 16th Century Mowbray migrations in England and Scotland.  Map of the Ireland Mowbray migration.

Americans knew the emigrants from Ulster (Northern Ireland) as 'The Scotch-Irish', a term unknown to those left behind in the old country, who preferred to be know, as the 'Ulster Scots'. This very clannish description was used to distinguish between the mainly Presbyterian inhabitants of Ulster, whose ancestors were predominantly 17th century settlers from Scotland, and the native, Catholic Irish. They still wish to distinguish today.

The Mowbrays in Ireland were Ulster Scots, but the surname was never common there, being found in only three parishes before 1800. Unluckily for family historians, a great deal of the nation's records were lost in an explosion in Dublin some fifty years ago, but we are able to chart the history of both Mowbray families by using many 'odds and ends' found in several Irish libraries. From these survivals we know that: 

a) the first Irish Mowbrays settled in Cumber parish, Co.Derry (Londonderry) about 1693, and were probably newly arrived from Scotland. They spread to neighbouring Co. Tyrone.
b) the second family settled near Ballintra village, Co. Donegal, about twenty or thirty years later, and were certainly from Scotland. Their family tradition states that Ayrshire was the Scottish home.
c) only the Co. Derry family are left in Ireland. The Donegal Mowbrays are represented in America, Canada, Australia, and probably elsewhere.

One day in the Spring of '74, your research editor was approached by an officer of the College of Arms who knew of his interest in the Mowbrays, and was asked to supply details of a family who had emigrated from Donegal, Ireland, to Ontario, Canada, in the early 19th century. All efforts by the College to trace this family had failed, and the client - a very prominent Canadian industrialist, whose mother was a Mowbray, was becoming somewhat impatient at the lack of success. Your editor was able to put his finger on the right button immediately, and the ensuing funds from the College helped research considerably

The family concerned have disappeared from the face of Ireland, but they lived at Ballintra, a village near Ballyshannon in south-east County Donegal, from about 1720 to 1890. Records from 1720 to 1780 in the parish registers of Drumholm (the parish for Ballintra) have gone missing through want of care on the part of the parish clerks, but it has been possible to reconstruct part of the family tree for this period with the extracts from land records held in Dublin. Tradition states that the Mowbrays of Ballintra, came from Ayrshire in Scotland, and this story is held by separate branches in Canada and Australia: but there is also a suggestion by one of the very numerous descendants of the 'clan' that the Scottish ancestor sailed from Queensferry near Edinburgh. Although this latter theory had against it the problem that he would have had to voyage either far both around the treacherous coast of .Scotland - a journey to Ireland rarely, if ever, undertaken - or an even longer trip around the South coast of England. I was inclined to believe there, was some substance in the Queensferry idea. Ayrshire is on the south-west coast of Scotland, and although the family might have sailed from that area, I knew that the county was not in any means a Mowbray 'nursery'. Or, the other hand, Queensferry was smack in the centre of Mowbray territory. All that was needed was a clue, and to begin. with there was only one: we knew that the first one to live in Donegal was Hugh Moubray, the probate date of his will indicating, that he died in 1760, and had children between 1750-1740. Tradition also provided an unsubstantiated 'clue' - that Hugh came over with three brothers - Robert, James and John.

The jigsaw puzzle began to fit together in 1975: while sifting through a mass of references to the surname in the Edinburgh area, I came across the following marriage at Edinburgh in 1696.

Robert Moubray in Cramond parish, to Elizabeth Saers, daughter of the late Robert Saers, litster (dyer) in Ayr.

Cramond is a parish 5 miles west of Edinburgh, where Mowbrays had lived since the 1400s, and as there were 4 Robert Moubrays baptized there between 1653-76, our man, could have been any one of them. However, a search for the children of Robert and Elizabeth at Edinburgh and Cramond failed to produce results, so I turned in hope to the parish registers of Ayr, apparently Elizabeth's native town. There I found the baptisms of the entire family - all of whom seem to have gone to Ballintra, as no later references to them occur at Lyr after 1708. Here are the entries:

- 12th August 1697; baptism of Magdalene, daughter of Robert Moubry, gardener in Ayr, and his spouse Elizabeth Sawers. 
- 9th April 1700; baptism of Hugh, son of the above couple. 
- 20th July 1702. baptism of John, son of the above couple. (should be Robert) 
- 3rd October 1704. baptism of John, son of the above couple. 
- April 1708.bapt. of Magdalen, daughter of the above couple (the first daughter must have died in infancy).

Incidentally, this does bear out the earlier reference to Queensferry in an odd way, because although it's obvious now that the family did sail from Ayr, Cramond is only two miles from Queensferry. One of the brothers - James - might have been baptized over in Ireland, once the family had established themselves there.

Hugh Moubray - they spelled the surname this way until the mid-19th century bought a few acres in the Ballintra townland of Moneymore, and seems to have done well for himself, as the records found at Dublin will show. 

Registry of Deeds, Dublin: 8th December 1759. Lease by Andrew Knox of Pregen to HUGH MOUBRAY the elder, of Moneymore, Donegal, farmer, of lands in Ardnagallagh (a townland in Drumholm parish). The lease was for the lives of the said Hugh, arid his sons HUGH MOUBRAY the younger, and ROBERT MOUBRAY.

Co. Donegal Resister of Electors, National Library, Dublin: Hugh MOUBRAY of Moneymore for his freehold there: George Knox is his landlord; registered in 1761
- ROBERT MOUBRAY of' Moneymore, for his freehold there; same landlord; registered 1768.
- JAMES MOUBERRY of Moneymore, for his freehold there; same landlord; registered 1774.
- HUGH MOUBERRY jr. of Moneymore, for his freehold there; same landlord; registered 1774.

Diocese of Raphoe Wills, Dublin I.R.C.: Although these wills were unfortunately lost during a fire in 1924, the index shows that Hugh Moubray of Moneymore had his will probated in 1780, indicating that he died about then, aged 79 or 80. It may be that Hugh senior's brothers died young, as there is no record of their existence in Donegal. James Moubray may well have been another son of Hugh senior. or in view of his deposition below, possibly a son of Hugh junior.

Registry of Deeds: 4th May 1781. Lease by William Cockburn of Ballymagroarty (another townland in Drumholm) to HUGH MOUBRAY of Ballintra. Witnessed by ROBERT and JAMES MOUBRAY (the latter deposing; that he was then aged 25 'and upwards') of Moneymore farmers. 

Parish Registers of Drumholm Church of Ireland parish: (great gaps in many places).

Baptisms (1720-1799)
- 7th October 1739. Mary, daughter of Hugh Moubray.
- 1st November 1741. Robert, son of Hugh Moubray.
-13th April 1783. Alexander, son of Robert Mowbray of Ardnagallah, & his spouse Mary Thompson. 
- 3rdJune 1785. Robert, son of Hugh Mowbray of Ballmagroarty, & his spouse Lucy Cockburn.
- 6th May 1786. Henry, son of Robert Mowbray of Ardnagallah, & his spouse Mary Thompson.
- 31st January 1787. Martha, daughter of John Mowbray of Moneymore & his spouse Helen Walker.
- 25th July 1790. Ralph, son of John Mowbray of Moneymore & his spouse Helen Walker.
- 27thJune 1791. Thompson, son of Robert Mowbray of Ardnagallah, and his spouse. Mary Thompson.
- 26th February 1793. Mary, daughter of John Mowbray of Moneymore & his spouse Helen Walker.
- 1794. James, illegitimate son of James Mowbray of Ballinacarrick, by Catherine Toland of Moneymore .
-  8th February 1795. Catherine, daughter of Hugh Mowbray of Ardnagallah, & his spouse Averina Freebairn.
-12th July 1796. - Edward, son of' John Mowbray of Moneymore , & his spouse Helen Walker.
- 10th December 1796. Mary, daughter of Hugh Mowbray of Ardnagallah, & his spouse Averina Freebairn.
- 4th November 1798. Thomas, son of Hugh Mowbray jnr. of Ardnagallah, & his spouse Averina Freebairn.

Marriages (1783-1810)
- 11th December 1792. Hugh Mowbray (son of Robert Mowbray of Moneymore & his spouse Bridget Flanigan) to Averina Freeborn, (daughter of James Freeborn of Drimgirstan).
- 4th November 1801. John Mowbray jnr. (son, of Robert Mowbray of Ardnagallagh) to Susanna Cockburn (daughter of Robert Cockburn of Ballintra).
- 23rd January 1810. Robert Moubray (son of Robert Moubray of Ardnaeallagh) to Margaret Corscadden (daughter of Arthur Corscadden of Ballintra)

These are not all the entries in the Drumholm register - only about half. These earlier ones have been given to show what material is available on the first three generations of Moubrays to settle in County Donegal. Incidentally, Robert of Moneymore and Robert of Ardnagallagh were most likely one and the same person. It is difficult to say with certainty who were the fathers of John of Moneymore and Hugh of Ballymagroarty, but it is likely that both men emigrated to Canada in the early 1800s.

We gave some of the relevant entries from Drumholme parish registers in a previous issue: now for the rest.

Baptisms (1800-1852). Arranged by parentage.

Hugh Moubray & Averina Freebairn had: (additional to children born before 1800) Hugh given as son of Robert in 1792. Margaret, bapt. 7th March 1801
- Jane, b. 28th August,1803.
- Alice, b. 17th August 1808.
- Elizabeth, b. 3rd December,1810. 

John Moubray of Ballintra & Susanna Cockburn (married 1801) had: (given as son of Robert) 
- Sarah, b. 9th September, 1802
- Robert, b. 12th October,1804.(emig. to Ontario ?) 
- Mary b.10th June, 1806.
- Alexander, b. 11th December,1807~~
- Thomas, b. 5th October,1809,. (emig. to Ontario ?)
- Margaret, b.10th May, 1811.
- Euphemia, b. 27th August, 1819.

Thomas Moubray of Ardnagallagh & Ruth Crawford had:
- Margaret, b. 22nd June, 1806
- Mary, b. 25th December, 1808.
 -James, b. 28th July, 1811. 

John (son of Hugh) Moubray of Ardnagallagh & Jane Anderson (married 1810) had:
John, b. 16th September,1810
John b. 1st November,18I2. 

Robert (son of Robert) Moubray of Ardnag. & Ballintra & Margaret Corscadden (married 1810) had: (Robert was an innkeeper) 
- William, b. about 1810.(emig.to Brooklyn, N.Y.)
- Catherine, b.10th October, 1812.
- John, b. about 1813 (of Ballintra).
- Margaret, b. about 1815.
- Robert, b. about 1816 (of Ballintra)
- Christian (Chrissy), b.1820
- Barbara, b. about 1821.
- James Alexander, b. 17th November, 1822. 

William Moubray of Ardnagallagh & Moneymore & Euphemia Teevin had:
- Eliza, b. 3rd January, 1820.
- Andrew, b. about 1822. (emig. to Tasmania)
- Thomas, b. 19th September, 1824.(emig.to Australia)
- Robert, b. about 1825 (emig.to Victoria, Australia) 
- Margaret, b. 29th April, 1827. 
- Sarah, b. 19th September, 1830.

John Moubray of Ballymagroarty & Ann had: (John was a farmer) 
- Mary Ann, b.10th December, 1826.
 -Lucinda, b.11th June, 1830.
- Jane, b. 31st January, 1836.
- Eliza, b. 11 Marx, 1839.

John Mowbray of Moneymore, farmer, and Elizabeth Hammond (mar.1844) had:
- Andrew, b. 8th December, 1844.
- James, b. 25th February, 1846.
- Ellen, b. 4th November, 1847.
- John, b. 5th February,1851
- Lucy, b. 1st August 1852.

Conditions in Ireland

Large-scale settlement of Scots in Northern Ireland (Ulster) commenced about 1610, subsequent to confiscation of lands hold by the rebel Irish Earls of Tyrconnell and Tyrone. King James of England had in mind the placing of English and Scottish Protestants on these lands, but from the outset there were many more Scottish immigrants than English, partly because their geographical proximity favoured them (the Scottish mainland faced the Ulster coast and was in an afternoon's sea-voyage) and partly because their necessities were greater in inducing emigration.

By 1640 it was estimated that the whole of Ulster contained about 50,000 Scots, but the total was temporarily reduced by the effects of the rebellion of Catholic Irish, which began in 1641, and lasted until 1652, following which a further large Scottish Immigration took place. The last period of mass-migration occurred over the eight years following the Revolution of 1688, in which perhaps 40,000 Scots arrived in all parts of the Province.

The 1700s were times of insecurity for the Ulster Protestant. An inducing case of the great tide of emigration to the New World was the 'rack-renting' of the English landlords of Ulster soil. In 1717, the long leases of land granted to tenants in the late 1600's began to expire and when renewal was sought the rents were doubled or tripled, reaching a point where farming ceased to be profitable, or even failed to give subsistence. Depression was also caused by recurring bad harvests and resultant famines, the severest of which were those in 1727 and 1740. Another crisis took place when the linen manufacture, Ulster's leading industry, collapsed in 1770. Many thousands were thrown out of employment, adding their volume to the swelling host of emigrants to America.

Last, but surely not the least of Ulster's problems was the virtual deprivation of citizenship, a direct result of the Test Act of 1704. This Act disqualified a man from holding any political office or commission in the Army, on purely political or religious grounds. The greater proportion of the population were Presbyterian, but the official church was the Church of England, though represented by a small part of the populace. The English bishops attempted to 'bring into line' the Presbyterians by engendering the Test Act, but the only effect was to unite the people against this form of oppression.

So, as far as the I7th century went, it was a time of immigration into the nine counties (now reduced to six) of Ulster; but throughout the 18th century the Province gave its 'Scotch-Irish' to America in uncounted thousand upon thousand.

The Historical Records Available

In England and Scotland, parish (church) registers of baptisms, marriages and burials are normally available for most communities from the 1600's to the present. Also, we use old wills tax-records personal papers and many other kinds of document to add to a family-history in those two countries. However, in Ireland the situation is very different and there are two main problems:

- Firstly parish registers normally did not become instituted in Ireland until the late 1700's or early 1800's and for Presbyterians they started even later.
- Secondly, many pariah registers, nearly all wills and census records were destroyed by explosion and fire in an uprising in Dublin in 1912.

County Londonderry - otherwise 'Derry', is the first Ulster county where we, note Mowbrays. In 1694, James Mowbry was an 'inquisitor' at the church of Cumber, about 15 miles from the town of Londonderry. I am uncertain of the meaning of this word, but am sure it was a harsher-sounding office than we might imagine. It was also quite possibly an unwanted job an the official Church at that time was busy trying to 'straighten out' the Scots Presbyterians by involving them in duties they found onerous.

We can be fairly sure that the Derry Mowbrays were of Scottish origin for the following reasons.
- 1. The actual proportion of the general Ulster population then was heavily balanced in favour of Scots.
- 2. The local (i.e. Londonderry) proportion of Scots was even higher than the average proportion.
- 3. I have an almost total coverage of records on English Mowbrays and I find no indication of emigration at that time or in that direction.
- 4. The first Mowbray we have noted was James. This name was, perhaps surprisingly, used four to five times as frequently in Scottish Mowbray families as in English.

It would be of interest to note that I have found in Scottish parish registers the names of several 'candidates' for the first emigrant to Ulster (if indeed, he was the first Mowbray to settle there):
- 11th November 1627 at St. Cuthbert's church Edinburgh; baptism of James, son of James Mowbray and his wife Elspet Ormiston. (there is some reason to believe this child died young and in any case, he would be an old man in 1694).
- 4th May 1632 at Edinburgh Church; bapt. of James, son of William Mowbray, skinner, and his wife Margaret Burn.
- 7th Auguet 1662 at Edinburgh; bapt. of James son of John Mowbray, merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Stevenson.
- 30th September 1662 at Cramond (6 miles west of Edinburgh); bapt. of James, son of James Moubray and his wife Jonet McKenlay.
- 10th May 1668 at Dunfermline (on the opposite shore of the River Forth from Edinburgh); bapt. of James, son of John Mowbray and his wife Elspet Murebeck.
- 13th December 1670 at Cramond; bapt. of James, son of Thomas Moubray and hill wife Jonet Dowie.
- 17th August 1673 at Edinburgh; bapt. of James, son of William Moubray, tailor, and his wife Margaret Law.
- 3rd October 1675 at Edinburgh; bapt. of James son of James Moubray, glazier, and his wife, Susanna Tweedie.
- 22nd January 1677 at Edinburgh; bapt. of James, son of Thomas Moubray, wright and his wife, Mary Tweedie.

Between 1694 and 1740 we have not yet found record of the Mowbrays at Cumber, but in the latter year there was made a register of Protestant heads of households for the county of Londonderry, and the following extracts from this document show that the family had by then become well-entrenched in the area:
- Cumber Parish Ardground Townland (a townland was a group of farms forming an administrative unit) - John Moberry and William Moberry.
        Toneduff Townland (adjacent to Ardground) - Thomas Mowberry.
- Glendermott Parish (adjacent to Cumber and the next parish to Londonderry City)
        Curryfree Townland - John Moberry
Desertowen Townland (adj. to Curryfree) - James Mobry.

From about this time two distinct families of Mowbray developed, Initially separated by a range of hills dividing the southern border between Cumber and Glendermott, but from approximately 1760 by a more interesting - and in a few cases permanent - development; a change of surname:

The Mulberrys of Glendarmott

As we have noted, the family at Glendermott in 1740 was spelled (no doubt by fairly literate clerks or assessors to whom the knowledge of how to 'correctly', spell a name with which they were unfamiliar was almost non-existent) Moberry and Mobry. We have better evidence at the same date - the signature of one of the family.

In the Registry of Deeds at Dublin we found that, on the 22nd January (?July) 1740, the Earl of Bessborough made a lease to Andrew Dun, John Moubray and Arthur Russell, all farmers at Curryfree Townland of certain lands there. The lease was for the term of several nominees' lives, including that of James Moubray, aged 13, only son of the aforesaid John. The signature is of:

'Moubray' is a more easily recognized variant of the name and probably more accurately reflected its pronunciation by John. Certainly it is the accepted Scottish spelling.

About 1764, Robert Mulberry was born at Curryfree. He stated those facts at the time he joined the Royal Naval ship 'Edgar' by warrant as a surgeon's 3rd mate, 17th September 1791. It seems that he was unmarried for in his will which he made four months after joining the 'Edgar' he left everything to his brother, John Mulberry of Curryfree. Robert actually died some 20 years later and had risen to the rank of Surgeon, but he still signed his name 'Mulberry'.

If John Mulberry was at Curryfree in 1792, who was his father ? From the lease recorded in 1740 it seems likely that James (then aged 13) son of John Moubray, was father of John and Robert - and probably a third son, William. This is given weight by the existence of a rental of the property at Curryfree which belonged in 1830 to the Goldsmiths Company of London, and in which is stated the following:

"One of the original tenants in this townland being James Mowbray, whose lease was dated 1st November 1781and was for 71 years, or 3 lives; the term in being 1st November 1829 is for 23 years or the life of William Mowbray, then (1829) aged about 58".

Reference is then made to the lease of 1740 which we have already mentioned; so it seems likely that William was James' son 'and was born about 1770.

The next document we have found in the 1831 Londonderry Census, in which the following households are listed at Curryfree (no Mulberrys/Mowbrays, etc. found in any other townland in Glendermott):

James Mulberry, whose household included 8 males, 5 females; Presbyterian. and John Mulberry with 4 other males and 2 females; Protestant Dissenters.

It would appear from this that both men had several sons even taking into account that the census enumerator may have included farm labourers 'living in'.

Fortunately, the Irish records of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths are nearly complete from 1864 (Protestant marriages from 1845), as are wills and newspaper accounts of events. So we are in a better position to chart the family history from that point. But even before 1864 a catastrophic event took place, which was to result in the not emigration to America and Canada of hundreds of thousands of Ulster families. The 'Potato Famine', an it was known occurred over two or three years between 1845-1850: nothing of this, Ireland (a staple crop, was available, nor any sufficient substitute, and human bodies decayed in ditches, fields and cottages in every county. It must have been a terrible time to live. The passenger-lists of the ports of Boston and Philadelphia bring to light the following emigrant families:
- James and Alexander Mulberry both natives of Ireland, came over together to Philadelphia on the ship 'Agenora on 3rd July 1845.
- James Mulberry, aged 25, laborer, native of Ireland, came to Boston on 'the 'Lesmahagon' on 28th May 1849.
- Robert Mulberry, aged 34, native of Ireland . came over to Philadelphia on the 'Superior', 13th July 1849 with his family, who were Martha (32), Jane (30), James (10), Mary Jane (8), Rebecca (4), Martha(2) and Eliza(3).

- Other Mulberrys to emigrate at different times were:
- John Mulberry, aged 26, farmer, native of Ireland came to New York on the (?), 23rd May 1828 with M. Mulberry (a female) aged 22.
- Robert Mulberry, aged 30, farmer, native of Ireland, came to Philadelphia on the 'Robert Kerr' 18th August 1836, with his family, who were Martha  (26) and James (2 yr. 6months).
- Mary Mulberry, aged 22, servant, came to Boston on the 'Lady of the Lake', 15th May 1851
- John Mulberry, aged 48, laborer native of Ireland came to Boston on the 'Admaril 12th June 1854 with his family who were Catherine (36), Jane (4), James (2), John (1), William (6mo.)
- John Mulberry, aged 32, laborer, born Ireland came to Boston on the 'Palmyra', 23rd April 1873.

There were possibly others whose names do not appear on the lists through omissions of some sort or other. But it is not certain that all these people remained in America - perhaps some were only visiting relatives. One thing is certain and that in that all these were closely related to each other because the surname of Mulberry was not to be found in any other part of Ireland than in Glendermott and surrounding parishes.

A valuation of all property in Ireland was taken in the 1850's, and the return for Curryfree shows:
- James Mulberry occupied a house, office and land, leased from Henry Lyle. 
- Robert Mulberry occupied a house, office and land, leased from Kyle. 
- James and Robert jointly 'occupied' mountain land, leased from Kyle. 
- James was also lessor of 3 houses, and Robert of one. The date of this valuation was 1858.

It in not known when the last Mulberry left Curryfree, but correspondence with one of this family has revealed that, about 1900 her entire family (consisting of four uncles - born in the 1870/80's - and granduncles, born in the 1840/50s, with their offspring) changed the name back to Mowbray. Indeed, this is borne out by surviving Irish records. Probably there are families in America descended from this clan who still are Mulberrys.

The Mowbrays of Cumber

We have mentioned that the first Mowbray in County Londonderry who we have noted was James (1694) of Cumber. By 1740 there were the three families of John, William and Thomas at Ardground and Toneduff in Cumber. The family seem to have left these townlands, and settled at the adjacent one of Kildoagh, where in 1775 William Moobrey (the original list gives it an 'McObrey') registered his freehold property. The Londonderry Freeholders Register of 1796 gives Thomas and John Mowbray at Kildoagh.

There is sufficient evidence to show that the family was outgrowing its home in the late 1700's, because we have details of four of its members joining the armed forces:
- 1. William Mooberry enlisted in the Royal Artillery an a Driver on 29th July, 1803, aged 18. He was by trade a rope-maker, born in the parish of Cumber; height - 5'3"; fair complexion; brown hair; grey eyes he was promoted to 2nd Corporal 31st July 1812, when in F Troop. He died 12th (?18th) January 1813.
- 2. John Mooberry enlisted in the Royal Artillery as a Driver on 6th August, 1803, aged 19. He was by trade a painter born in Templemore parish (the Cumber side of Londonderry town); height - 5'5"; fair complexion; brown hair; blue eyes; could read and write. In G Troop (although mustered in F Troop in 1812). He was discharged in Ireland, 29th June 1816 and a pension was paid him until his death on the 10th March 1821.
    (Note: it seems likely, given all the above information# that these two were brothers)
3. Oliver Scott Mowberry/Mowbray entered the Royal Naval vessel 'Brisk' an a ship's corporal in 1810, when aged 26. He had previous Navy experience, and stated that he was born in Londonderry (perhaps meaning the county rather than the town). He was dead in December 1833, when his mother Jane Mowberry at Leckpatrick, County Tyrone, made a claim for his effects. It is noted that he had a brother, Henry Mowbray, who was apparently living in 1838.
    The fourth seems to have been the same Henry, as his naval service is implied in the correspondence relating to his mother's claim.

The parish registers of Lower Cumber (Cumber was split in the 1700s into Lower and Upper parishes) are in a fairly good state of preservation from the early 1800s, and several families of Mowbray are mentioned:
- Oliver Mowbray/Mooberry and his wife Margaret Cunningham had four children recorded 1812-1825. They lived at Kildoagh. 
- John Mowbray and his wife Mary Hambison/Hampson had children born at or near Kildoagh in the 1820's and these moved to Scotland, where their descendants still live. John was a weaver. 
- James Mowbray and his wife Mary Cunningham had children born at or near Kildoagh in the 1830. A son is thought to have been William Mowbray of Cumber, who married Isabella McBeth in 1858. 
- Thomas Mowbray/Mooberry of Toneduff townland had several children 1830-1841.A son of his is thought to have been Robert Mowbray of Londonderry and Waterside, who may have descendants living.

These are some, but not all of the Mowbrays from Cumber who were still in the area in the 19th century. But by the 1830s, emigration had again played its hand, and Kildoagh was nursery to families who had gone to Glasgow (Scotland) and America In Ireland in 1900, there were only between 5 and 10 of the family left to carry on the name.

Some interesting items about both the Glendermott and Cumber families are:
- 1. The Mooberry family of America - very numerous - probably stem from one of this branch who went to Pennsylvania (Choster County) 1720-40.
- 2. If the present Mowbray/Moubray/Mouberry family of Virginia do descend from John or Robert Mooberry of Augusta County they are also probably "Scotch-Irish", and thus from Cumber or Glendermott.
- 3. Nine out of ten times when the name 'Oliver' is encountered in connection with a Mowbray, he will be of Cumber origin. I do however note that the name came Into the Maryland family - which came direct from Scotland - about 1835, so that would be the tenth instance.

More Ulster Families

The short pedigrees on the following two pages concern branches of the Londonderry Mowbrays which we have not covered in previous issues of the 'Journal'. The article in Vol.3,No.3 gives all the background information, but we are still left with a few unconnected families in Tyrone and Derry.

Family (tree) number 1. lived in close proximity to the townland of Kildoagh in Lower Cumber parish, and since there were Mowbrays and Mooberrys at both places throughout the 1700s, there is good reason to connect this Toneduiff farming clan to them. Thomas and Joseph (sons of Robert and Nancy) were both killed fighting during the 1st World War.

Family number 2. is most likely another Kildoagh branch, because apart from actually living there, there was a three-generation usage of Oliver as first name - something unique to the Eildoagh family from the 1700's. I find it of interest that no births have been found registered by this couple (Oliver and Elizabeth) between 1871-1882, although as the pedigree shows, James A. was born about I873 (but not registered in Ireland). Did they emigrate for a decade?

Family number 3. has an unknown origin. In the rent-returns of the 1850, Thomas' father is shown as Benjamin MAYBURY. But he was living in an area where no other Mayburys were known. There were Mayberrys in the south-east of Co Derry, and on the odd occasion they had been known to change to Mowbray. But Benjamin's death certificate shows him as a Mowbray, and it is likely he was from the Glendermott or Cumber families. His son, Thomas, seems to have moved to St. Helens, Lancashire (England) about 1873, and to have had other sons born there.

Family number 4. shows yet another Oliver, doubtless from Kildoagh.

Family number 5. is also something of a mystery, because no record has been found of a marriage between Hamilton and Eliza. Of course, it may have been a common-law relationship, but these were not all that common. The use of Ellen, Eliza, John, Alexander and James as names for some of his children inclines me to think he was close to the Curryfree, Glendermott family of John and James Mulberry, circa 1800-1830, who kept using these Christian names. Also, the first three births of Hamilton's children were recorded as Mulberry and Muberry.

Family numbers 6 and 7 may relate to the same John (James), but this is unknown at present.

Family number 8. concerns the ancestry of Samuel Mowbray of Cookstown. He was quite possibly the same whose baptism-entry appears below in the parish registers of Donagheady, Tyrone (adjacent parish to Cumber and Glendermott, Derry). Samuel's son James emigrated to America, but later returned with his son John Mowbray, now a physician in Dublin, Ireland.

PARISH REGISTERS OF DONAGMUN, Co. TYRONE
Baptisms:
- 23-9-1827 John, son of Thomas & Ann Mulberry of Donagheady, weaver.
- 14-1-1830 Samuel, son of above, farmer.
- 1-11-1835 Ellen, daughter of Thomas and Ellen Mulberry, weaver
- 1-3-1837 James, son of James & Jane Mulberry of Killeny, weaver.
- 7-6-1837 James, son of John & Elizabeth Mobray of Tirkenaghan, weaver.
- 30-8-1838 Mary Anne, daughter of James & Jane Mobray of Killeny, weaver.
- 10-2-1839 Rachel, daughter of John & Elizabeth Mobley of Tirkenaghan, weaver.
- 19-2-1842 Matilda, daughter of John & Eleanor Mulberry of Glenn garden, laborer.
- 10-5-1841 Eliza, daughter of John & Eliza Moberry of Tirkenaghan.
- 3-11-1853 Jane, daughter of John & Elizabeth Moberry of Tirkenaghan, weaver.
- 5-5-1857 Leslie, son of Eliza Mowberry of Tirkenaghan , weaver.

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woodbullet.gif (174 bytes)GEOFFREY DE MONTBRAY

Saintonge in fief against his son. In 1036 Geoffrey Martel had to liberate William the Fat, on payment of a heavy ransom, but the latter having died in 1038, and the second son of William the Great, Odo, duke of Gascony, having fallen in his turn at the siege of Mauz (I0th of March 1039)

Geoffrey made peace with his father in the autumn of 1039, and had his wife's two sons recognized as dukes. About this time, also, he had interfered in the affairs of Maine, though without much result, for having sided against Gervais, bishop of Le Mans, who was trying to make himself guardian of the young count of Maine, Hugh, he had been beaten and forced to make terms with Gervais in 1038. In 1040 he succeeded his father in Anjou and was able to conquer Touraine (1044) and assert his authority over Maine. About 1050 he repudiated Agnes, his first wife, and married Grcie, the widow of Bellay, lord of Montreuil-Bellay (before August 1052), whom he subsequently left in order to marry Adela, daughter of a certain Count Odo. Later he returned to Grcie, but again left her to marry Adelaide the German. When, however, he died on the 14th of November 1060, at the monastery of St Nicholas at Angers, he left no children, and transmitted the countship to Geoffrey the Bearded, the eldest of his nephews.See Louis Halphen, Le Coml d'Anjou au XP sicle (Paris, 1906). A summary biography is given by Clestin Port, Diclionnaire historique, geographigue et biographique de Maine-el-Loire (3 vols., vol. i. chs. iii. iv.

GEOFFREY, surnamed PLANTAGENET [or PLANTEGENET] (1113-1151), count of Anjou, was the, son of Count Fulk the Young and of Eremburge (or Arembourg of La Flche; he was born on the 24th of August 1113. He is also called le bel or the handsome, and received the surname of Plantagenet from the habit which he is said to have had of wearing in his cap a sprig of broom (genit). In 1127 he was made a knight, and on the 2nd of June 1129 married Matilda, daughter of Henry I. of England, and widow of the emperor Henry V. Some months afterwards he succeeded to his father, who gave up the countship when he definitively went to the kingdom of Jerusalem. The years of his government were spent in subduing the Angevin barons and in conquering Normandy. In 1151, while returning from the siege of Montreuil-Bellay, he took cold, in consequence of bathing in the Loir at Chhteau-du-Loir, and died on the 7th of September. He was buried in the cathedral of Le Mans. By his wife Matilda he had three sons: Henry Plantagenet, born at LeMans on Sunday, the 5th of March 1133; Geoffrey, born at Argentan on the 1st of June 1134; and William Long-Sword, born on the 22nd of July 1136. See Kate Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887), vol. i. chs. v.-viii.; Clestin Port, Dictionnaire hislorique, gographique et hiographique de Maine-el-Loire (3 vols., Paris-Angers, 18741878), vol.ii. pp. , 251/2-256. 

A history of Geoffrey le Bel has yet to be written; there is a biography of him written in the 12th century by Jean, a monk of Marmoutier, Historia Gaul redi, ducis Normannorum et comitis Andegavorum, published by Marchegay et Salmon; Chroniques des comtes dAnjou (Socit de lhisloire de France, Paris, 1856), pp. 229-310. (L. H.*) GEOFFREY (11581186), duke of Brittany, fourth son of the English king Henry II. and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, was born on the 23rd of September 1158.

In 1167 Henry suggested a marriage between Geoffrey and Constance (d.1201), daughter and heiress of Conan IV., duke of Brittany (d. 1,7,); and Conan not only assented, perhaps under compulsion, to this proposal, but surrendered the greater part of his unruly duchy to the English king. Having received the homage of the Breton nobles, Geoffrey joined his brothers, Henry and Richard, who, in alliance with Louis VII. of France, were in revolt against their father; but he made his peace in I 174, afterwards helping to restore order in Brittany and Normandy, and aiding the new French king, Philip Augustus, to crush some rebellious vassals. In July 1181 his marriage with Constance was celebrated, and practically the whole of his subsequent life was spent in warfare with his brother Richard. In 1183 he made peace with his father, who had come to Richards assistance; but a fresh struggle soon broke out for the possession of Anjou, and Geoffrey was in Paris treating for aid with, Philip-Augustus, when he died in August 1186. He left a daughter, Eleanor, and his wife bore a posthumous son, the unfortunate Arthur. GEOFFREY (c. 1152-1212), archbishop of York, was a bastard son of Henry II., king of England. He was distinguished from his legitimate half-brothers by his consistent attachment and fidelity to his father. He was made bishop of Lincoln at the age of twenty-one (1173); but though he enjoyed the temporalities he was never consecrated and resigned the see in 1183. He then became his fathers chancellor, holding a large number of lucrative benefices in plurality. Richard nominated him archbishop of York in 1189, but he was not consecrated till 1191, or enthroned till 1194.

Geoffrey, though of high character, was a man of uneven temper; his history in chiefly one of quarrels, with the see of Canterbury, with the chancellor Willian Longch amp, with his half-brothers Richard and John, and especially with his canons at York. This last dispute kept him in litigation before Richard and the pope for many years. He led the clergy in the irrefusal to be taxed by John and was forced to fly the kingdom in1207. He died in Normandy on the 12th of December 1212. See Giraldus Cambrensis, Vita Galfridi; Stubbss prefaces to Roger de Hoveden, vols. iii. and iv.

GEOFFREY DE MONTBRAY (d. 1093), bishop of Coutances (Conslantiensis), a right-hand man of William the Conqueror, was a type of the great feudal prelate, warrior and administrator at need. He knew, says Orderic, more about marshalling mailed knights than edifying psalm-singing clerks. Obtaining, as a young man, in 1048, the see of Coutances, by his brothers influence, he raised from his fellow nobles and from their Sicilian spoils funds for completing his cathedral, which was consecrated in 1056. With bishop Odo, a warrior like himself, he was on the battle-field of Hastings, exhorting the Normans to victory; and at Williams coronation it was he who called on them to acclaim their duke asking. His reward in England was a mighty fief scattered over twelve counties. He accompanied William on his visit to Normandy (1067), but, returning, led a royal force to the relief of Montacute in September 1069. In 1075 he again took the field, leading with Bishop Odo a vast host against the rebel earl of Norfolk, whose stronghold at Norwichthey besieged and captured. Meanwhile the Conqueror had invested him with important judicial functions. In 1072 he had presided over the great Kentish suit between the primate and Bishop Odo, and about the same time over those between the abbot of Ely and his despoilers, and between the bishop of Worcester and the abbot of Ely, and there is some reason to think that he acted as a Domesday commissioner (1086), and was placed about the same time in charge of Northumberland. The bishop, who attended the Conquerors funeral, joined in the great rising against William Rufus next year (1088), making Bristol, with which (as Domesday shows) he was closely connected and where he had built a strong castle, his base of operations. He burned Bath and ravaged Somerset, but had submitted to the king before the end of the year. He appears to have been at Dover with William in January 1090, but, withdrawing to Normandy, died at Coutances three years later. In his fidelity to Duke Robert he seems to have there held out for him against his brother Hlenry, when the latter obtained the Cotentin.

Round, Feudal England; and, for original authorities, the works of Orderic Vitalis and William of Poitiers, and of Florence of Worcester;the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; William of Malmesburys Gesta pon- lificum, and Lanfrancs works, ed. Giles; Domesday_Book. 

GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH (d. 1154), bishop of St Asaph and writer on early British history, was born about the year 1100. Of his early life little is known, except that he received a liberal education under the eye of his paternal uncle, Uchtryd, who was at that time archdeacon, and subsequently bishop, of Llandaff. In 1129 Geoffrey appears at Oxford among the witnesses of an Oseney charter. He subscribes himself Geoffrey Arturus; from this we may perhaps infer that he had already begun his experiments in the manufacture of Celtic mythology. A firste dition of his Hirtoria Britonum was in circulation by the year

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